Acta Chemica Malaysia

Acta Chemica Malaysia

ANALYSIS OF CHLOROPHYLL AND Β-CAROTENE CONTENT OF WINTER VEGETABLES IN BANGLADESH

Abstract

ANALYSIS OF CHLOROPHYLL AND Β-CAROTENE CONTENT OF WINTER VEGETABLES IN BANGLADESH

Journal: Acta Chemica Malaysia (ACMY)
Author:Mohammad Zahir Ullah, Md. Sadekul Islam, Md Samsuzzaman, Md.Sarowar Alam and Rownoke Jannat Janny
ISSN: 2576-6732
e-ISSN: 2576-6724

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/acmy.01.2024.19.24

Winter vegetables are a prime source of essential nutrients and biomolecules required for human growth, development and active defense system of the body. The experiment was conducted to determine the chlorophyll and β-carotene content of winter vegetables using the spectrophotometric method. Chlorophyll content in winter vegetables ranged from 0.24 mg/100g in beetroot to 54.91 in radish leaf. The β-carotene content in winter vegetables ranged from 3.07 μg/100g in beetroot to 1060.13 μg/100g in radish leaf. In the cluster analysis,,cluster II included spinach, radish leaf, and goat weed with high chlorophyll and β-carotene content of winter vegetables. Euclidean distance between cabbage and sorrel was the lowest (16.09) while largest distance was observed between beetroot and radish leaf (1059.18). Highly significant positive correlation was observed between β-carotene and chlorophylls. Radish leaf, spinach, goosefoot, roselle leaf and roselle fruit were observed to have the high total chlorophyll and β-carotene content among the studied winter vegetables. They should be regularly included in the diet for adequate supply of protective biomolecules in the winter season for enhanced defense system of the body .

Pages 19-24
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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Acta Chemica Malaysia

SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF SYMMETRICAL TETRAKIS-IMIDAZOLIUM DINUCLEAR SILVER(I) DI-N-HETEROCYCLIC CARBENE COMPLEX

Abstract

SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF SYMMETRICAL TETRAKIS-IMIDAZOLIUM DINUCLEAR SILVER(I) DI-N-HETEROCYCLIC CARBENE COMPLEX

Journal: Acta Chemica Malaysia (ACMY)
Author:Muhammad Zulhelmi Nazri and Mohd Rizal Razali
ISSN: 2576-6732
e-ISSN: 2576-6724

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/acmy.01.2024.13.18

This brief report outlines the synthesis and analysis of symmetrical dinuclear Ag(I) di-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, primarily derived from tetrakis-benzimidazolium salts. The symmetrical tetrakis-imidazolium salt was synthesized by reacting 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(bromomethyl)benzene with the imidazole moiety of 1‧Br. These salts were then transformed into their respective complexes through an in-situ deprotonation reaction with Ag2O, utilizing different salt-to-metal molar ratios, resulting in the establishment of dinuclear Ag(I) di-NHC complexes designated as Ag1. The structures of both the tetrakis-imidazolium (1‧Br) salts and the Ag(I) di-NHC complex Ag1 were determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H- and 13C-NMR), CHN elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the macrocyclic complex Ag1 suggests a crystalline structure resembling a cylinder.

Pages 13-18
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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Acta Chemica Malaysia

MULTI-GENE GENETIC PROGRAMMING MODELING OF THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVECTIVELY DRIED COBRA 26 F1 TOMATO, GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE MODEL DEPLOYMENT, AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

Abstract

MULTI-GENE GENETIC PROGRAMMING MODELING OF THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVECTIVELY DRIED COBRA 26 F1 TOMATO, GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE MODEL DEPLOYMENT, AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

Journal: Acta Chemica Malaysia (ACMY)
Author:Hamdan Alanzi, Hamoud Alenezi, Oladayo Adeyi, Abiola J. Adeyi, Abogunrin-Olafisoye Oladunni Bola, Chee-Yuen Gan, Olusegun Abayomi Olalere, Osama Al-Qabandi
ISSN: 2576-6732
e-ISSN: 2576-6724

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/acmy.01.2024.01.12

This study explores the thermodynamic characteristics of convectively dried Cobra 26 F1 tomatoes at various temperatures and after different thermal pre-treatments. Employing Multi-gene Genetic Programming (MGGP), the refined model accurately predicts energy utilization (EU), energy utilization ratio (EUR), exergy loss (ExLoss), and exergy efficiency (ExEff). The MGGP model, structured with 100 populations, 150 generations, and 4 trees, demonstrated superior performance, with R2 values of 0.9155, 0.9116, 0.9756, and 0.9736 for EU, EUR, ExLoss, and ExEff, respectively. The model was successfully deployed to a graphic user interface (GUI), achieving high accuracy rates of 99.97-99.99% when tested on randomly selected drying conditions. Monte Carlo simulation was employed to assess the sensitivity of thermodynamic characteristics to drying factors, revealing significant influences of temperature, time, and pre-treatment variations. The results indicate the EU, EUR, ExLoss, and ExEff responses to temperature, time, and pre-treatment changes, providing valuable insights for sustainable process design, management, control, and commercialization of dried Cobra 26 F1 tomato production. Overall, this research contributes essential knowledge for enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of dried food production processes.

Pages 01-12
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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