Microplastics: Holistic overview of source, identification, interaction, health and environmental implications and strategies of abatement
Journal: Acta Chemica Malaysia (ACMY)
Author: Nworie Felix Sunday
This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Microplastic (MP) is currently a subject of discussion in all parts of the world because it has increasingly over the years become the dominant source of pollution in marine ecosystem. Huge number of these Mps emanate from waste management, decommissioning of ships and oil rigs, plastic products in aquaculture and fishery, sewage treatment, consumer products, agricultural production, transportation, offshore oil and gas production and city dust and wears. Microplastic are characteristically non- biodegradable or durable, exhibits buoyancy, travel long distances, complex with toxic chemicals and bioaccumulate being invisible to the human eye. Classification of MPs into primary and secondary based on source and established standard protocols visavis the sampling and identification in matrices were critically reviewed. Physicochemical processes for identification of MPs such as pyrolysis-Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM-GS and TGA/MS were reviewed. Deleterious chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dioxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic chemicals (POCs) associated with MPs and mechanisms of chelation were appraised. Several menace and health hazards such as hepatic inflammation, genetic mutation, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) /oxidative stress, tissue necrosis and proliferation of cells linked with MPs were also discussed. Furthermore, green approaches to arresting the menace such as replacing polymer products with biopolymer an eco-friendly alternative, recycling of plastic products, use of paper bags and glass materials and abrogation of consumer products laced with microbeads were advocated.